What is Micro TESE, which is applied in the treatment of infertility?

Micro TESE (Microscopic Testicular Sperm Extraction) is a surgical procedure that is used in the treatment of male infertility. It is specifically designed for men who have non-obstructive azoospermia, a condition where there is no sperm present in the ejaculate due to a problem with sperm production in the testes.

During a Micro TESE procedure, a small incision is made in the scrotum to access the testes. Unlike other sperm retrieval techniques, such as testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) or percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA), Micro TESE involves the use of an operating microscope to identify and extract sperm directly from the testicular tissue.

The main advantage of Micro TESE over other sperm retrieval methods is its ability to locate and retrieve even the smallest amounts of sperm. This is particularly important for men with non-obstructive azoospermia, as they often have very low sperm production. By using the operating microscope, the surgeon can identify areas of the testes where sperm production is more likely to occur, increasing the chances of finding viable sperm.

Micro TESE is typically performed under general anesthesia, and the procedure itself usually takes around 2-3 hours. Once the surgeon has located areas of the testes with potential sperm production, small samples of testicular tissue are collected. These samples are then examined under the microscope by an embryologist to identify and isolate individual sperm cells.

Once viable sperm cells are found, they can be used for various assisted reproductive techniques, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In IVF, the retrieved sperm is combined with the partner’s eggs in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. In ICSI, a single sperm is directly injected into an egg to achieve fertilization.

Micro TESE has shown to be highly successful in retrieving sperm in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Studies have reported sperm retrieval rates ranging from 50% to 70%, with pregnancy rates of around 30% to 50% per cycle. However, the success of Micro TESE depends on various factors, including the underlying cause of azoospermia and the quality of the retrieved sperm.

As with any surgical procedure, there are potential risks and complications associated with Micro TESE. These can include infection, bleeding, damage to surrounding tissues, and anesthesia-related complications. However, the overall risk of complications is relatively low, and the procedure is generally considered safe when performed by an experienced surgeon.

In conclusion, Micro TESE is a surgical procedure used in the treatment of male infertility caused by non-obstructive azoospermia. It involves the use of an operating microscope to locate and extract sperm directly from the testicular tissue. Micro TESE has shown to be an effective method for retrieving sperm in men with non-obstructive azoospermia, offering them the opportunity to father a child through assisted reproductive techniques.

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